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Thus legislation favours the second option where the internal equipment of interlocking stations would be replaced by new electronic ETCS desks before switching the network to ETCS Level 2.
However the current railway equipment manufacturers did not provide enough technology options at the time of the report to start it off. So the plan would be to run feasibility studies until with a projected start of changeover set to A rough estimate indicates that the switch to ETCS Level 2 could be completed within 13 years from that point and it would cost about 6.
For comparison, SBB indicated that the maintenance of lineside signals would also cost about 6. The Swiss findings influenced the German project " Digitale Schiene " digital rail.
The project was unveiled in January and it will start off with a feasibility study on electronic interlocking stations that should show a transition plan by mid While they are set to obsolescence , the older line side signal information can be read by using Specific Transmission Modules STM hardware and fed the Class B signal information to a new ETCS onboard safety control system for partial supervision.
In practice an alternative transition scheme is used where an older ATC is rebased to use Eurobalises. This leverages the fact that a Eurobalise can transmit multiple information packets and the reserved national datagram packet number 44 can encode the signal values from the old system in parallel with ETCS datagram packets.
The older train-born ATC system is equipped with an additional Eurobalise reader that converts the datagram signals.
This allows for a longer transitional period where the old ATC and Eurobalises are attached on the sleepers until all trains have a Eurobalise reader.
All trains had been equipped with Eurobalise readers and signal converters until generally called "Rucksack" " backpack ". In Berlin the old mechanical train stops on the local S-Bahn rapid transit system are replaced by Eurobalises in the newer ZBS train control system.
Unlike the other systems it is not meant to be transitional for a later ETCS operation scheme. The Wuppertal Suspension Railway called for bids on a modernization of its train protection and management system.
Alstom won the tender with a plan largely composed of ETCS components. It is expected that headways will drop from 3,5 minutes to 2 minutes when the system is activated during The trainborne equipment monitors the maximum speed of that type of train.
The train driver observes the trackside signals. Since signals can have different meanings on different railways, this level places additional requirements on drivers' training.
If the train has left a higher-level ETCS, it might be limited in speed globally by the last balises encountered.
Level 1 is a cab signalling system that can be superimposed on the existing signalling system, leaving the fixed signalling system national signalling and track-release system in place.
Eurobalise radio beacons pick up signal aspects from the trackside signals via signal adapters and telegram coders Lineside Electronics Unit — LEU and transmit them to the vehicle as a movement authority together with route data at fixed points.
The on-board computer continuously monitors and calculates the maximum speed and the braking curve from these data. Because of the spot transmission of data, the train must travel over the Eurobalise beacon to obtain the next movement authority.
In order for a stopped train to be able to move when the train is not stopped exactly over a balise , there are optical signals that show permission to proceed.
With the installation of additional Eurobalises " infill balises " or a EuroLoop between the distant signal and main signal, the new proceed aspect is transmitted continuously.
The EuroLoop is an extension of the Eurobalise over a particular distance that basically allows data to be transmitted continuously to the vehicle over cables emitting electromagnetic waves.
A radio version of the EuroLoop is also possible. For example, in Norway and Sweden the meanings of single green and double green are contradictory.
Drivers have to know the difference already with traditional systems to drive beyond the national borders safely. In Sweden, the ETCS Level 1 list of signal aspects are not fully included in the traditional list, so there is a special marking saying that such signals have slightly different meanings.
Whereas ETCS L1 Full Supervision requires supervision to be provided at every signal, ETCS L1 Limited Supervision allows for only a part of the signals to be included, thus allowing to tailor the installation of equipment, only to points of the network where the increase in functionality justifies the costs.
As supervision is not provided at every signal, this implies that cab signalling is not available and the driver must still look out for trackside signals.
For this reason, the level of safety is not as high, as not all signals are included and there is still reliance on the driver seeing and respecting the trackside signalling.
Several years later a steering group was announced in spring The resulting proposal was distributed to the eight administrations that were identified: After German Deutsche Bahn took over the responsibility for the change request.
Level 2 is a digital radio-based system. Movement authority and other signal aspects are displayed in the cab for the driver.
Apart from a few indicator panels, it is therefore possible to dispense with trackside signalling. However, the train detection and the train integrity supervision still remain in place at the trackside.
Train movements are monitored continually by the radio block centre using this trackside-derived information.
The Eurobalises are used at this level as passive positioning beacons or "electronic milestones". Between two positioning beacons, the train determines its position via sensors axle transducers, accelerometer and radar.
The positioning beacons are used in this case as reference points for correcting distance measurement errors. The on-board computer continuously monitors the transferred data and the maximum permissible speed.
With Level 3, ETCS goes beyond pure train protection functionality with the implementation of full radio-based train spacing.
Fixed train detection devices GFM are no longer required. As with Level 2, trains find their position themselves by means of positioning beacons and via sensors axle transducers, accelerometer and radar and must also be capable of determining train integrity on board to the very highest degree of reliability.
By transmitting the positioning signal to the radio block centre, it is always possible to determine that point on the route the train has safely cleared.
The following train can already be granted another movement authority up to this point. The route is thus no longer cleared in fixed track sections.
In this respect, Level 3 departs from classic operation with fixed intervals: Level 3 is currently under development.
Solutions for reliable train integrity supervision are highly complex and are hardly suitable for transfer to older models of freight rolling stock.
Some kind of end-of-train device is needed or special lines for rolling stock with included integrity checks like commuter multiple units or high speed passenger trains.
A variant of Level 3 is ERTMS Regional , which has the option to be used with virtual fixed blocks or with true moving block signalling.
It was early defined and implemented in a cost sensitive environment in Sweden. In with SRS 3. It is possible to use train integrity supervision, or by accepting limited speed and traffic volume to lessen the effect and probability of colliding with detached rail vehicles.
ERTMS Regional has lower commissioning and maintenance costs, since trackside train detection devices are not routinely used, and is suitable for lines with low traffic volume.
Instead of using fixed balises to detect train location there may be "virtual balises" based on satellite navigation and GNSS augmentation.
Following the NGTC specifications the future interoperable GNSS positioning systems, supplied by different manufacturers, will reach the defined positioning performance in the locations of the virtual balises.
This equipment consists of wireless communication, rail path sensing, central logic unit, cab displays and control devices for driver action.
This is added with control devices specific for the train type. It consists of specific sensing elements to lineside installations and an interface for hardware and logic adapting interface to EVC.
The STM enables therefore the usage of the ETCS equipped driving vehicle on the non-equipped network and is today essential for interoperability.
The Balise Transmission Module BTM is an set with antennas and the wireless interface for reading data telegrams from and writing to eurobalises.
The odometric sensors are significant for exact position determination. Between such milestones the position is estimated and measured relative to the last passed milestone.
Initially it was tested, that in difficult adhesive conditions axle revolution transmitters would not give required precision.
It is connected with external data communication, internal controls to speed regulation of the loco, location sensors and all cab devices of the driver.
The Euroradio communication unit is compulsory and is used for voice and data communication. Such a train event recorder is functionally equivalent to the flight recorder of aircraft.
Lineside equipment is the fixed installed part of ETCS installation. While in Level 1 sequences with two ore more of eurobalises are needed for signal exchange, in Level 2 balises are used for milestone application only.
It is replaced in Level 2 by mobile communication and more sophisticated software. In Level 3 even less fixed installation is used. In first positive tests for satellite positioning were done.
The Eurobalise is a passive or active antenna device mounted on rail sleepers. Mostly it transmits information to the driving vehicle.
It can be arranged in groups to transfer information. There are Fixed and Transparent Data Balises. Fixed Balises are programmed for a special information like gradients and speed restrictions.
It is a special Leaky feeder for transmitting information telegrams to the car. It gets information from Signalling control and from the trains in its section.
It hosts the specific geographic data of the railway section and receives cryptographic keys from trains passing in.
RBC have defined interfaces to trains, but have no regulated interfaces to Signalling Control and only have national regulation. At the other end Aachen to Oberhausen will be ready in , the missing section from Oberhausen to Hanover in The other two corridors are postponed and Germany chooses to support the equipment of locomotives with STMs to fulfill the requirement of ETCS transport on the corridors.
The interest resulted from new High Speed Lines HSL under construction, the development of the ports at the Atlantic and technically rotting national signalling systems.
To rise the level of security on conventional lines, it was thought to use ETCS L1 for compatibility. But because of high costs for full implementation on rolling stock, it was chosen to select standard components from ETCS for interfacing locos receiver and rails balises to easy support existing infrastructure.
The balises were sending information with reserved national paket type 44, compatible with common signalling.
Later it can be complemented with standardised ETCS information. In Siemens was selected for delivery.
Following the privatisation of SNCB in a split-off company Infrabel stepped in to be responsible for the whole state railway infrastructure.
Following some serious accidents i. Halle train collision caused by missing or malfunctioning protection systems, there was the obvious target to raise the security level in the whole network.
Testing began in and commercial traffic started about with locomotive-hauled trains under Level 1.
It started public service in March The order includes the delivery of computer based interlockings for the full network until In was given an order for double deck coaches of Belgium type M7.
They are to be delivered between and and have a complete ETCS equipment for replacement of older types. Germany intends to use Level 1 only as Limited Supervision — neither Full Supervision nor Euroloops will be installed.
The first project for ETCS planning was the Köln—Frankfurt high-speed rail line that had been under construction since The next planning and real implementation was on the Leipzig-Ludwigsfelde main line to Berlin.
There was testet SRS 2. The ETCS equipment seems partly not to be upgradable. The southern part Ebensfeld-Erfurt started test running and driver training in the end of August Starting in December there are about 20 high-speed trains per day from Munich to Berlin.
With Germany pressing for Baseline 3 neighbouring countries like Austria intend to update their vehicle fleet, especially modernizing the GSM-R radio on the trains.
This is already widely deployed in the German rail network including better frequency filters for the GSM-R radio equipment.
In January the project "Digitale Schiene" digital rail was unveiled that intended to bring about a transition plan by mid After some toothing problems with radio reception it settled within the expected range of usability.
In Hungary Level 2 is under construction, but due to problems with the installation of GSM-R , all of them are delayed. The Level 2 system is under constructuion in several phases.
LEN Industri Persero provides the trackside fixed-block signalling. Three separate tenders are being issued in for this purpose one contract each will be awarded for track-side infrastructure, rolling-stock integration, and the erection of a GSM-R network.
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